Anxiety is a feeling of worry, nervousness or unease. While everyone experiences anxiety at times, some individuals may find that their anxiety seriously impacts their lives and ability to learn. Some participants may experience anxiety only in specific learning situations, such as Math Anxiety.

Math anxiety:

  • Zelazny, A.,  Bean, C., David, S., & Bruton, A., (n.d.). Who is afraid of math? what is math anxiety? and what can you do about it? Frontiers for Young Minds.  https://kids.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frym.2017.00057 
  • Barroso, C., Ganley, C.M., McGraw, A.L., Geer, E.A., Hart, S.A., and Daucourt, M.C. (2021). A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 147(2), 134-168.

Goal Setting

Goal setting is the process of setting an outcome (a goal) that makes the direction of learning clear.  It also helps increase participants’ motivation and achievement levels.

Growth Mindset

Growth mindset refers to the belief that the most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work.


Mindfulness maintains a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment.  This can reduce the negative effects of stress and increase a participant’s ability to stay engaged, stay on track academically and avoid behavior problems.

  • Bartlett, L., Martin, A., Neil, A. L., Memish, K., Otahal, P., Kilpatrick, M., & Sanderson, K. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace mindfulness training randomized controlled trials. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(1), 108-126. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000146 (login required).
  • Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J. E. M., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. B. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 310-325. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031313 (login required).
  • Making Time for Mindfulness


Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.

Personality trait change happens continuously into adulthood and can affect how participants learn as they grow older.


Self-regulation is the ability to monitor attention, thoughts and emotions. Participants who have the ability to regulate their emotions and behavior are able to better engage with other participants and respond to the varying activities of the day.

  • Sitzmann, T., & Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: What we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137(3), 421-442. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022777 (login required).
  • Parrish, N. (2022). How to Teach Self-Regulation: To succeed in school, students need to be able to focus, control their emotions, and adjust to change. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/how-teach-self-regulation

Social-emotional skills

Social-emotional skills include the self-awareness, self-control, and interpersonal skills that are vital for school, work, and life success.

Soft Skills

Soft skills are interpersonal skills or people skills such as communication, listening and time management.  These are important in the workplace as they deal with how people work with each other.  


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