Critical Incident Method

Critical incident method involves analyzing specific situations to determine which communicative actions or behaviors would lead to the best possible outcome of a given situation.

  • More resources coming soon! Please send your resources to

Growth Mindset

Growth mindset refers to the belief that the most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work.

Problem-based Learning

Problem-based learning  (PBL) is a learner-centered approach in which participants learn about a subject by working in groups to solve an open-ended problem.

Problem-Solving Teaching and Learning Materials

Problem solving teaching and learning materials are designed to help enable participants to identify, analyze, propose solutions, and make decisions. Problem solving helps address issues, monitor success, and learn from the experience.

The following links include practical, printable, ready-made resources to use in the delivery of Skills for Success training.

Research on Teaching Problem-Solving

Problem solving enable participants to identify, analyze, propose solutions, and make decisions. Problem solving helps address issues, monitor success, and learn from the experience.

The following links include research data and evidence to support the instruction of problem solving.

  • Csapo, B., & Funke, J. (2017). The Nature of Problem Solving: Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning. OECD Publishing.
  • Dochy, F., Segers, M., Van den Bossche, P., & Gijbels, D. (2003). Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis. Learning and Instruction, 13(5), 533-568. (login required).
  • Evans, S., & Swan, M. (2014). Developing students’ strategies for problem solving in mathematics: The role of pre-designed “Sample Student Work.” Educational Designer, 2(7).
  • Friesen, S., & Scott, D. (2013). Inquiry-Based Learning: A Review of the Research Literature. Prepared for the Alberta Ministry of Education.
  • Government of Ontario. (2020). High-Impact Instructional Practices in Mathematics.
  • Gyarmati, D., Leckie, N., Dowie, M., Palameta, B., Shek-wai Hui |, T., Dunn, E., & Hébert, S. (2014). UPSKILL: A Credible Test of Workplace Literacy and Essential Skills Training [Technical Report]. Social Research and Demonstration Corporation.
  • Jozwiak, J. (2004). Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Adults. Journal of Adult Education, 33(1), 19-34.
  • Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. (login required).
  • Lai, E. R. (2011). Critical thinking: A literature review. Pearson.
  • McCormick, N. J., Clark, L. M., & Raines, J. M. (2015). Engaging Students in Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: A Brief Review of the Literature. Journal of Studies in Education, 5(4).  (login required).
  • OECD. (2019). How much time do adults spend on the PIAAC assessment and why does it matter? | READ online.
  • PISA 2015 Results (Volume V): Collaborative Problem Solving | en | OECD. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2021, from
  • Program for the International Assessment for Adult Competencies (PIAAC)?XProblem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments Domain. (n.d.). National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from
  • Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, L(2).
  • Social Research and Demonstration Corporation. (2021). Research Report to Support the Launch of Skills for Success: Structure, Evidence and Recommendations. Final draft report.
  • Tiruneh, D. T., Verburgh, A., & Elen, J. (2014). Effectiveness of critical thinking instruction in higher education: A systematic review of intervention studies. Higher Education Studies, 4(1), 1-17.  (login required).
  • University of Texas Arlington. (2021). How Inquiry-Based Learning Can Work in a Math Classroom. UTA Online.
  • Walker, A., & Leary, H. (2009). A Problem Based Learning Meta Analysis: Differences Across Problem Types, Implementation Types, Disciplines, and Assessment Levels. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 3(1), 6-28.

Team Dynamics

Team dynamics refer to the relationships between learners in a group and the impact on the way they work and learn together.

Scroll to top