Accommodations allow participants with disabilities to complete the same tasks as their peers but with some variation in time, format or setting. The purpose of an accommodation is to provide participants with equal access to learning and an equal opportunity to show what they know and what they can do.



Anxiety is a feeling of worry, nervousness or unease. While everyone experiences anxiety at times, some individuals may find that their anxiety seriously impacts their lives and ability to learn. Some participants may experience anxiety only in specific learning situations, such as Math Anxiety.

Math anxiety:

  • Zelazny, A.,  Bean, C., David, S., & Bruton, A., (n.d.). Who is afraid of math? what is math anxiety? and what can you do about it? Frontiers for Young Minds.  https://kids.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frym.2017.00057 
  • Barroso, C., Ganley, C.M., McGraw, A.L., Geer, E.A., Hart, S.A., and Daucourt, M.C. (2021). A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 147(2), 134-168.

Assistive Technologies

Assistive technologies are any items, pieces of equipment or products used to improve the learning capabilities of individuals.

Disability and Accessibility Standards

Disability and Accessibility Standards are standards that help participants live and learn in a barrier-free environment.

Learning Differences and Disabilities

Learning differences refer to the diverse ways all students learn and the rates at which they learn.

Learning disabilities refer to a wide variety of disabilities which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information.

  • Learning Disability Association of Canada: https://www.ldac-acta.ca/
  • Learning Disability Association of Canada resources: https://www.ldabc.ca/resources/
  • Learning Disabilities in the Workplace (Literature List): https://ceric.ca/wpdm-package/learning-disabilities-in-the-workplace/
  • Issues specific to adults with Learning Disabilities: https://www.ldao.ca/introduction-to-ldsadhd/articles/about-issues-specific-to-adults-with-lds/
  • Boadi Agyekum, Pius Siakwah & John Kwame Boateng (2021) Immigration, education, sense of community and mental well-being: the case of visible minority immigrants in Canada, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 14:2, 222-236, https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2020.1801488

  • Bonaccio, S., et al. (2020). The participation of people with disabilities in the workplace across the employment cycle: Employer concerns and research evidence. Journal of Business and Psychology (35), 135–158
  • Brucker, D. L., Mitra, S., Chaitoo, N., & Mauro, J. (2015). More likely to be poor whatever the measure: Working‐age persons with disabilities in the United States. Social Science Quarterly96(1), 273-296.
  • Ellenkamp, J. J., Brouwers, E. P., Embregts, P. J., Joosen, M. C., & van Weeghel, J. (2016). Work environment-related factors in obtaining and maintaining work in a competitive employment setting for employees with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 26(1), 56-69.

  • EY, in association with Made by Dyslexia. (2018). The value of dyslexia: Dyslexic strengths and the changing world of work. https://www.madebydyslexia.org/assets/downloads/EY-the-value-of-dyslexia.pdf

  • Government of Canada (2021a). COVID-19 and people with disabilities in Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/guidance-documents/people-with-disabilities.html#a8

  • Holwerda, A., Groothoff, J. W., de Boer, M. R., van der Klink, J. J., & Brouwer, S. (2013). Work-ability assessment in young adults with disabilities applying for disability benefits. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(6), 498-505.

  • Holwerda, A., van der Klink, J. J., de Boer, M. R., Groothoff, J. W., & Brouwer, S. (2013). Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2753-2763.

  • Hughes, K., Bellis, M. A., Jones, L., Wood, S., Bates, G., Eckley, L., … & Officer, A. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence against adults with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The Lancet, 379(9826), 1621-1629.Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., … & Officer, A. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The Lancet, 380(9845), 899-907.
  • Lindsay, S., Cagliostro, E., Albarico, M., Mortaji, N., & Karon, L. (2018). A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-018-9756-z
  • Martel, A., Day, K., Jackson, M. A., & Kaushik, S. (2021). Beyond the pandemic: the role of the built environment in supporting people with disabilities work life. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 15 (1), 98-112.
  • Morris, S. (2019). Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: Workplace accommodations for employees with disabilities in Canada, 2017. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2019001-eng.htm
  • Morris, S., et al. (2018). Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: A demographic, employment and income profile of Canadians with disabilities aged 15 years and over, 2017. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2018002-eng.htm
  • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2018). Inequalities in perceived mental health in Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/publications/science-research-data/6.PerceivedMentalHealth_EN_final.pdf

  • Ruhindwa, A., Randall, C., & Cartmel, J. (2016). Exploring the challenges experienced by people with disabilities in the employment sector in Australia: Advocating for inclusive practice‐a review of literature. Journal of Social Inclusion7(1).
  • Schur, L. A. (2003). Barriers or opportunities? The causes of contingent and part‐time work among people with disabilities. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 42(4), 589-622.
  • Shakespeare, T., Ndagire, F., & E. Seketi, Q. (2021). Triple jeopardy: disabled people and the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet, 397, 1331-1333. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)00625-5/fulltextShaw, N. T., Boudreau, S., & Issaoui, M. (2021). Digital Assistive Technologies to support remote working by people with disabilities: A scoping review. SSHRC/Future Skills Center.
  • Statistics Canada. (2020b). Impacts of COVID-19 on persons with disabilities. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/200827/dq200827c-eng.htm

  • Sundar, V., O’Neill, J., Houtenville, A. J., Phillips, K. G., Keirns, T., Smith, A., & Katz, E. E. (2018). Striving to work and overcoming barriers: Employment strategies and successes of people with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 48(1), 93-109.

  • Von Schrader, S., Malzer, V., & Bruyère, S. (2014). Perspectives on disability disclosure: the importance of employer practices and workplace climate. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26(4), 237-255.

  • Wilson, E., & Campain, R. (2020). Fostering employment for people with intellectual disability: The evidence to date. Inclusion Australia. http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/582205

  • World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health: ICF. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42407

  • Deloitte Insights (2019). The ROI in workplace mental health programs: Good for people, good for business; A blueprint for workplace mental health programs. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ca/Documents/about-deloitte/ca-en-about-blueprint-for-workplace-mental-health-final-aoda.pdf
  • Kruse, D., Schur, L., Rogers, S., & Ameri, M. (2018). Why do workers with disabilities earn less? Occupational job requirements and disability discrimination. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(4), 798-834.
  • Lingsom, S. (2008). Invisible impairments: Dilemmas of concealment and disclosure. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research10(1), 2-16.
  • Wittenburg, D., Mann, D. R., & Thompkins, A. (2013). The disability system and programs to promote employment for people with disabilities. IZA Journal of labor Policy, 2(1), 1-25.

Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that helps give all participants an equal opportunity to succeed. This approach offers flexibility in the ways participants access material, engage with it and show what they know.

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