Andragogy is the theory that adults learn differently than children. Adults need instruction that is tailored to their more self-directed, motivated, practical and goal-oriented nature.

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology focuses on the science of how people think. This branch of psychology explores a wide variety of mental processes, including attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and reasoning. Cognitive psychology can help identify effective instructional strategies, such as interleaving and spacing.

Colonialism and Racism

Colonialism is a set of policies that resulted in justifying Western practices of education and suppressing all other forms of knowledge.

Racism is discrimination against someone based on a particular racial group which can negatively affect a participant’s education and learning processes.

Emerging Trends in Adult Education

Emerging trends in adult education discusses the research and discovery in adult learning.  These include mobile training, microlearning and video training, self-led learning and game-based learning.    

  • Fenwick, T. (2008). Workplace learning: Emerging trends and new perspectives. New directions for adult and continuing education2008(119), 17-26. (login required).
  • Abraukhova, V., & Zimovetc, A. (2021). Trends in adult complementary education in the modern digital space. E3S Web of Conferences, 273, 12001. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202127312001
  • Social Research and Demonstration Corporation. (2020). Characteristics of adults who return to education: Understanding barriers to adult learning. https://www.srdc.org/media/553114/srdc-adult-learners-lisa-report.pdf


Growth Mindset

Growth mindset refers to the belief that the most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work.

Human Capital Theory

Human Capital Theory suggests that education and training are investments that make individuals more productive.

Indigenization of Education

Indigenization of Education is the process of relating and incorporating Indigenous worldviews, knowledge and perspectives into training methods, curricula and the education system as a whole.

Indigenous Principles of Learning

Indigenous Principles of Learning incorporate Indigenous ways of thinking, being and learning into learning curriculum.


Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.

Personality trait change happens continuously into adulthood and can affect how participants learn as they grow older.

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